11. Health

ILLNESSES
To be healthy both the body and the mind must function well. When something in the body or mind doesn't work properly we are ill and we show symptoms such as pain, fever, coughing, sneezing, etc.

There are 2 types of illnesses: infectious and non-infectious:
  • Infectious illnesses: Caused by microscopic organisms such as fungi, bacteria or viruses that atact the body. They can enter in the body through contaminated water, air of open wounds (heridas). They can be contagious or not.
    • Contagious: transmitted from one person to other, by insects bites, sneezes... For example colds and flu (gripe)
    • Non-contagious: Not transmitted. For example the tetanus or salmonellosis caused by bacterias.
  • Non-infectious illnesses:They can be caused by different factors:
    • Poisoning when we breath or ingest toxic substances or drugs
    • Traumas such as cuts, burns, fractures, dislocations and sprains. Caused by accidents, bad postures...
    • Malnutrition and obesity: if we have a bad diet we can have malnutrition (lack (falta) of minerals, vitamins or other nutrients) or obesity (can cause circulatory and heart problems...)
    • Tumors and cancer: when some cells of your body grow abnormally or don't work properly. It can be caused by radiation, cheical substances or viruses.
    • Cardiovascular diseases: affect the circulatory system (heart diseases, blocked arteries, blood pressure problems...). Caused by unhealthy habits, stress...
    • Allergies: exagerated reactions of your body to a particular substance like pollen, food, animas... 
    • Mental illnesses: such as depression or anxiety. Caused by difficult situations in your life.
    • Congenital diseases: any modifications of our cells during fertilisation or pregnancy can cause genetic diseases

PREVENTION OF ILLNESSES
  • Healthy diet
  • Regular physical activity: to prevent cardiovascular diseases, obesity...
  • Posture: sit down properly, bend your knees when lifting heavy objects...
  • Rest and sleep: for kids around 10 hours a day and for adults 8 hours a day. It helps you to fight infections, rest properly and mental health
  • Hygiene: washing our hands before eating or after goint to the bathroom, keep ourselves clean, our clothes... to eliminate microorganisms and prevent infections and some types of poisoning.
  • Self-esteem (autoestima) and self-respect: to be happy with who you are and avoid mental illnesses
  • Beign responsible: take precations to avoid accidents, poisoning, infections, go to the doctor...

MEDICINE
Medicine tries to identify and cure illnesses. to do that they do...

1. Diagnosing (diagnóstico): Study the symptoms and do test (susch as analyze blood, urin, make scans, x-ray...) to identify the illness
2. Treatment: doing surgery (operate) or doing transplants, going to physiotherapy, relax, massages or adinistrating medicines to cure or prevent illnesses such as:
    • antibiotics to cure infections
    • painkillers (analgésicos) to relieve pain
    • vaccines (vacunas) to prevent illnesses

MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES
If you go to this page you can see how medicine has changed through history.

Some important advances through history has been:
FIRST AID
Minnor accidents:
Superficial wounds: whash with soup and water. Remove sand or other substances. Desinfect using alcohol, rub on an antiseptic and cover witha gauze pad (gasa)
Minor burn: put cold water. If there is a blister (ampolla) don’t burst it (estallar)
Mild cut: put pressure in the cut to stop bleeding and keep the wound high.
If an annimal bites you: go to the doctor in case you need a vaccitetanus vaccine, antidote

Major accidents:
Call 112. They will help you, send an ambulance, police, firemen
Do not disturb the accident scene: leave the doctors work.
If the person if bleeding, stop the blood without moving the person, to prevent brainor spinal cords injuries.